IMPORTANT INFORMATION

PROPERTIES OF GEMSTONES

DIAMOND

Color : colorless, yellow, brown, green, blue, red, black. Hardness : 10 Specific gravity : 3.47 - 3.55 Refractive index : 2.417 - 2.419

 

RUBY [ corundum ]

Color : red Hardness : 9 Specific gravity :3.97 - 4.05 Refractive index : 1.766 - 1.774

 

SAPHIRE [ corundum ]

Hardness : 9 Color : blue, green, pink, yellow, orange, purple, black. Specific gravity : 3.99 - 4.00 Refractive index : 1.766 - 1.774

 

EMERALD [ beryl ]

Color : emerald green, light green, yellow green, dark green. Hardness : 7 1/2 - 8 Specific gravity : 2.67 - 2.78 Refractive index : 1.576 - 1.582

 

AQUAMARINE [ beryl ]

Color : light blue, blue, blue green Hardness : 7 1/2 - 8 Specific gravity : 2.67 - 2.71 Refractive index : 1.577 - 1.583

 

BERYL

Color : golden beryl, green yellow, brown. Hardness : 7 1/2 - 8 Specific gravity : 2.65 - 2.75 Refractive index : 1.570 -1.600

 

ALEXANDRITE [ chrysoberyl ]

Color : green in daylight, and red in artificial light [ color change ] Hardness : 8 1/2 Specific gravity :3.70 - 3.72 Refractive index :1.744 - 1,755

 

CRYSOBERYL

Color : golden yellow, green yellow, brown. Hardness : 8 1/2 Specific gravity : 3.70 - 3.72 Refractive index : 1.744 - 1.755

 

SPINEL

Color : red, pink, violet, blue, orange, dark green, black. Hardness : 8 Specific gravity : 3.58 - 3.61 Refractive index : 1.712 - 1.736

 

TOPAZ

Color : colorless, yellow, red, brown,light blue, pink. Hardness : 8 Specific gravity : 3.53 - 3.56 Refractive index : 1.610 - 1.638

 

GARNET AND GARNET GROUP

PYROPE

Color : red with brown tint Hardness : 7 - 7 1/2 Specific gravity : 3.65 - 3.80 Refractive index : 1.730 - 1.760

 

ALMANDINE [ garnet ]

Color : red with a violet tint. Specific gravity : 3.95 - 4.20 Refractive index : 1.78 - 181

 

SPESSARTITE [ garnet ]

Hardness : 7 - 7 1/2 Color : orange to red brown. Specific gravity : 4.12 - 4.20 Refractive index : 1.795 - 1.815

 

TZAVORITE [ garnet ]

Color : green, yellowish green. Hardness : 7 - 7 1/2 Specific gravity : 3.60 - 3.68 Refractive index : 1.738 -1745

 

HESSONITE [ garnet ]

Color : yellow, orange, brown-orange Hardness : 7 - 7 1/2 Specific gravity : 3.60 - 3.68 Refractive index : 1.738 - 1.745

 

DEMANTOID [ garnet ]

Color : green, emerald green Hardness : 6 1/2 - 7 Specific gravity : 3.82 -3.85 Refractive index : 1.888 - 1.889

ZIRCON

Color : colorless, yellow, brown, orange, red, blue, green, violet. Hardness : 6 1/2 - 7 1/2 Specific gravity : 3.90 - 4.71 Refractive index : 1.777 - 1.987

TOURMALINE

Color : colorless, pink, red, yellow, green, blue, violet, brown, Hardness : 7 - 7 1/2 Specific gravity : 3.02 - 3.26 Refractive index : 1.616 - 1.652

 

KUNZITE [ spodume ]

Color : pink, violet, light violet Hardness : 6 - 7 Specific gravity : 3.16 - 3.20 Refractive index : 1.655 - 1.680

 

ROCK CRYSTAL

Color : colorless. Hardness : 7 Specific gravity : 2.65 Refractive index : 1.544 - 1.553

 

AMETHYST [ quartz ]

Color : purple, deep purple light purple. Hardness : 7 Specific gravity : 2.63 - 2.65 Refractive index : 1.544 - 1.553

 

CITRINE [ quartz ]

Color : light yellow to gold brown Hardness : 7 Specific gravity : 2.65 Refractive index : 1.544 - 1.553

 

PRASIOLITE [ quartz ]

Color : leek green. Hardness : 7 Specific gravity : 2.65 Refractive index : 1.544 - 1.553

 

ROSE QUARTZ [ quartz ]

Color : strong pink, pale pink Hardness : 7 Specific gravity : 2.65 Refractive index : 1.544 - 1.553

 

CHALCEDONY [ quartz ]

Color : bluish, white, gray. Hardness : 6 1/2 - 7 Specific gravity : 2.58 -2.64 Refractive index : 1.530 - 1.539

 

CORNELIAN [ quartz ]

Color : flesh red to brown red Hardness : 6 1/2 - 7 Specific gravity : 2.58 - 2.64 Refractive index : 1.530 - 1.539

CHRYSOPRASE [ quartz ]

Color : green, apple green Hardness : 6 1/2 - 7 Specific gravity : 2.58 - 2.64 Refractive index : 1.530 - 1.539

 

AGATE

MOSS AGATE DENDRITIC AGATE [ quartz group ]

Color : from colorless with different colors inclusions, and tree like inclusions Hardness : 6 1/2 - 7 Specific gravity : 2.58 - 262 Refractive index : 1.54 - 1.55

 

OPAL [ quartz group ]

color : white, gray, green, orange, red, transparent,. Hardness : 5 1/2 - 6 1/2 Specific gravity : 1.98 - 2.20 Refractive index : 1.44 - 1.46

 

JADE

JADEITE

Color : green, light green, reddish, brown, lavender,yellow, black. Hardness : 6 1/2 - 7 Specific gravity : 3.30 - 3.36 Refractive index : 1.654 - 1.667

 

NEPRITE - JADE

Color : green, gray, yellowish, reddish brown Hardness : 6 1/2 - 6 1/2 Specific gravity : 2.90 - 3.02 Refractive index 1.600 - 1.627

 

PERIDOT

Color : yellow- green,olive green,brownish green. Hardness : 6 1/2 - 7 Specific gravity : 3.27 -3.37 Refractive index : 1.654 - 1.690

 

TANZANITE

Color : sapphire blue-amethyst,violet. Hardness : 6 1/2 - 7 Specific gravity : 3.35 Refractive index ; 1.691 - 1.700

 

MOONSTONE [ feldspar ]

Color : colorless - yellow - pale sheen Hardness : 6 - 6 1/2 Specific gravity : 2.56 - 2.62 Refractive index : 1.522 - 1.530

 

TURQUOISE

Color : sky blue - blue green - apple green. Hardness ; 5 - 6 Specific gravity : 2.60 - 2.80 Refractive index : 1.61 -1.65

 

IOLITE

Color : blue in various hues. Hardness : 7 - 7 1/2 Specific gravity : 2.58 -2.66 Refractive index ; 1.53 - 1.55

 

AMBER

Color : light yellow to brown red - milky white - blue - black - greenish Hardness : 2 - 2 1/2 Specific gravity : 1.05 - 1.09 Refractive index : 1.54

 

CORAL

Color : red - pink - black - blue. Hardness : 3 - 4 Specific gravity : 2.6 - 2.7 Refractive index : 1.486 - 1.658

 

IVORY

Color : white - creamy. Hardness : 2 - 3 Specific gravity : 1.7 - 2.0 Refractive index : 1.54

 

PEARL

Color : pink - silver - cream - golden - green - blue - black. Hardness : 3 - 4 Specific gravity : 2.60 - 2.78 Refractive index : 1.52 - 1.66